Power Asymmetry: An Analysis of Gaps Between the Hierarchical Levels and the Organizational Culture

  • Carlos Molina Universidad Católica del Norte
  • Boris Heredia Rojas Universidad Católica del Norte
  • Gianni Romaní Universidad Católica del Norte
  • Raúl Reynaga Universidad Católica del Norte
Keywords: Retail industry, Organizational culture, Denison model, Power, Hierarchical level

Abstract

The workers are demanding a new psychological contract, in which the differences in power must be less asymmetrical, thus allowing the hearing of the voices of the less heard. In accordance with the above, this study determines the existing gaps between the three hierarchical levels (strategic, executive, and operational) and the organizational culture, focusing on power asymmetries. Following the case methodology, the instrument designed by Denison (1990) is applied to measure the organizational culture in each of its four dimensions (adaptability, involvement, mission and consistency) in a regional and national sales leading retail company located in the north of Chile. The information collected from 163 respondents is analyzed using non parametric statistics. The results show the high correlation between the hierarchical levels and cultural organization´s dimensions. However, in four particular items (empowerment, capacity development, core values and agreement), it is shown that the operational level feels that the higher hierarchical levels impose their power which, besides affecting their motivational and commitment levels, leads them to take action in order to decrease asymmetries, where informal powers play a key role. In other words, the relationship between culture, hierarchical levels and power developed in this study is an incite for future research to deepen it.

Downloads

View per year:  
Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Carlos Molina, Universidad Católica del Norte
Ph.D. in Human Resource Development en la Texas A&M University, Director del Departamento de Administración de la Universidad Católica del Norte, Director del Magíster en Dirección de Empresas-Antofagasta, sus líneas de investigación son Aprendizaje Organizacional, Brechas Generacionales e Indicadores en Educación. 
Boris Heredia Rojas, Universidad Católica del Norte
Ph.D. in Project Management, University of Sydney, Australia. Director del Magister en Gestión integral de Proyectos Sede Antofagasta, Universidad Católica del Norte. Línea de investigación gestión de proyectos, programas y portafolios. 
Gianni Romaní, Universidad Católica del Norte
Doctora en Administración de Empresas-Finanzas, Universidad de Sao Paulo, Profesora Titular, Facultad de Economía y Administración, Universidad Católica del Norte, Directora del Centro de Emprendimiento y de la PYME y sus áreas de investigación son emprendimiento y su financiamiento.
Raúl Reynaga, Universidad Católica del Norte
Ingeniero Comercial, Facultad de Economía y Administración de la Universidad Católica del Norte. Investigador del Centro de Emprendimiento y la PYME.

References

Abal Medina, P. (2007). El destierro de la alteridad: El caso Wal Mart Argentina. Revista mexicana de sociología, 69(4), 683-727.
Allaire, Y., & Firsirotu, M. E. (1984). Theories of organizational culture. Organization studies, 5(3), 193-226.
Anderson, C., & Brown, C. E. (2010). The functions and dysfunctions of hierarchy. Research in organizational behavior, 30, 55-89.
Awadh, A. M., & Alyahya, M. S. (2013). Impact of organizational culture on employee performance. International Review of Management and Business Research, 2(1), 168.
Bonavia, T., Prado, V. G., & Barberá, D. T. (2009). Spanish adaptation and factor structure of the Denison Organizational Culture Survey. Psicothema, 21(4), 633-638.
Bolton, S. C. (2007). Dimensions of dignity at work, London: Butterworth Heineman
Calderón Moncloa, L. F., & Viardot, E. (2009). El impacto de los valores Latinoamericanos en la gerencia del cambio organizacional. Oikos: Revista de la Escuela de Administración y Economía(27), 13-30.
Cameron, K. S., & Quinn, R. E. (2011). Diagnosing and changing organizational culture: Based on the competing values framework: John Wiley & Sons.
Carrillo, A. P. (2013). Medición de la cultura organizacional. Ciencias Administrativas, 4(8), 61-73.
Choo, C. W. (2013). Information culture and organizational effectiveness. International Journal of Information Management, 33(5), 775-779.
Clark, F. A. (2010). Power and confidence in professions: Lessons for occupational therapy. Revue canadienne d’ergothérapie, 77(5), 264-269.
Contreras Torres, F. V., & Castro Ríos, G. A. (2013). Liderazgo, poder y movilización organizacional. Estudios gerenciales, 29(126), 72-76.
Cruz Feria, G. A. (2005). Actitud del Trabajador Antecedentes de Involucramiento y Compromiso y Sus Efectos en el Desempeño: Estudio Correlacional en la Industria de las Telecomunicaciones y Tecnologías de Información-Edición Única. (Master), Tecnológico de Monterrey.
Cújar Vertel, A. d. C., Ramos Paternina, C. D., Hernández Riaño, H. E., & López Pereira, J. M. (2013). Cultura organizacional: evolución en la medición. Estudios gerenciales, 29(128), 350-355.
Dagnino, J. (2014). Comparaciones múltiples. Revista Chilena de Anastesia, 43(1), 311-312.
Denison, D. (1990). Corporate culture and organizational effectiveness: John Wiley & Sons.
Denison, D., & Mishra, A. (1995). Toward a theory of organizational culture and effectiveness. Organization science, 6(2), 204-223.
Denison, D., & Neale, W. (1996). Denison organizational culture survey. Ann Arbor, MI: Aviat.
Denison, D., Nieminen, L., & Kotrba, L. (2014). Diagnosing organizational cultures: A conceptual and empirical review of culture effectiveness surveys. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 23(1), 145-161.
Diefenbach, T., & Sillince, J. A. (2011). Formal and informal hierarchy in different types of organization. Organization studies, 32(11), 1515-1537.
Fey, C. F., & Denison, D. R. (2003). Organizational culture and effectiveness: can American theory be applied in Russia? Organization science, 14(6), 686-706.
Foucault, M. (1980). Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings , 1972-1977, in C. Gordon (Ed). New York: Pantheon.
Giraldo Marín, S. B. (2012). El empoderamiento como elemento generador de compromiso organizacional en los empleados de las empresas aseguradoras de la ciudad de Manizales (Magíster en Administración), Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Manizales, Colombia.
Glisson, C. (2015). The role of organizational culture and climate in innovation and effectiveness. Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance, 39(4), 245-250.
Gómez Roldán, I., & Ricardo Bray, R. G. (2012). Cultura organizacional: aproximación sectorial en Bogotá. Revista Facultad de Ciencias Económicas: Investigación y Reflexión, 20(2), 19-41.
Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2016). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): Sage Publications.
Halevy, N., Chou, E. Y., Galinsky, A. D., & Murnighan, J. K. (2012). When hierarchy wins: Evidence from the national basketball association. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3(4), 398-406.
Hernandez Sampiere, R., Fernandez Colladi, C., & Baptista, M. d. (2014). Metodología de la investigación (Sexta Edición ed.). México, México.
Hofstede, G. (1998). Identifying organizational subcultures: An empirical approach. Journal of management studies, 35(1), 1-12.
Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context. Online readings in psychology and culture, 2(1), 8.
Horton, K. E., McClelland, C. R., & Griffin, M. A. (2014). Defined by our hierarchy? How hierarchical positions shape our identifications and well-being at work. human relations, 67(10), 1167-1188.
Hüther, O., & Krücken, G. (2013). Hierarchy and power: A conceptual analysis with particular reference to new public management reforms in German universities. European Journal of Higher Education, 3(4), 307-323.
International Labor Organizatión (ILO) (2016). Non-standard employment around the world: Understanding challenges, shaping prospects. International Labour Office – Geneva.
Jahn, J. L., & Black, A. E. (2017). A model of communicative and hierarchical foundations of high reliability organizing in wildland firefighting teams. Management Communication Quarterly, 31(3), 356-379.
James, L. R., James, L. A., & Ashe, D. K. (1990). The meaning of organizations: The role of cognition and values. Organizational climate and culture, 40, 84.
Janićijević, N. (2013). The mutual impact of organizational culture and structure. Economic annals, 58(198), 35-60.
Jofré, E. (2002). Modelo de diseño y ejecución de estrategias de negocio. Serie gestión.(35), 1-43.
Kokina, I., & Ostrovska, I. (2014). The Analysis of Organizational Culture with the Denison Model (the Case Study of Latvian Municipality). European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 9(10).
Krywkow, J., & Hare, M. (2008). Participatory process management.
Kwon, B., Farndale, E., & Park, J. G. (2016). Employee voice and work engagement: Macro, meso, and micro-level drivers of convergence? Human Resource Management Review, 26(4), 327-337.
Marín, D. (2012). Estructura organizacional y sus parámetros de diseño: Análisis descriptivo en pymes industriales de Bogotá, Estudios Gerenciales, 28(123), 43-64.
Mariño-Arévalo, A. (2009). Las relaciones de poder y la comunicación en las organizaciones: Una fuente de cambio, AD-minister, (24), 119-141.
Martínez-León, I. M., Olmedo-Cifuentes, I., & Ramón-Llorens, M. C. (2018). Work, personal and cultural factors in engineers’ management of their career satisfaction. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 47, 22-36.
Martínez Avella, M. E. (2010). Relaciones entre cultura y desempeño organizacional en una muestra de empresas colombianas: reflexiones sobre la utilización del modelo de Denison. cuadernos de administración, 23(40).
Moskovich, Y., & Achouch, Y. (2017). Family home culture and management-employee relationships: Comparing two kibbutz factories. Journal of Co-operative Organization and Management, 5(2), 95-107.
Naranjo-Valencia, J. C., Jiménez-Jiménez, D., & Sanz-Valle, R. (2016). Studying the links between organizational culture, innovation, and performance in Spanish companies. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 48(1), 30-41.
Nielsen, N. V. (2015). 6 tendencias del retail en América Latina: Qué está pasando en el retail y cuáles son las tendencias que lo fortalecen para el futuro. The Nielsen Company.
OECD. (2016). Regulatory policy in Chile: Government capacity to ensure high-quality regulation The macoeconomic context in Chile. Paris, France: OECD Publishing.
Parida, A., & Kumar, U. (2009). Maintenance productivity and performance measurement Handbook of maintenance management and engineering (pp. 17-41): Springer.
Pfeffer, J. (2013). You're still the same: Why theories of power hold over time and across contexts. Academy of Management Perspectives, 27(4), 269-280.
Robbins, S., Judge, T., & Enríquez Brito, J. (2013). Comportamiento organizacional: Pearson México DF.
Ronay, R., Greenaway, K., Anicich, E. M., & Galinsky, A. D. (2012). The path to glory is paved with hierarchy: When hierarchical differentiation increases group effectiveness. Psychological science, 23(6), 669-677.
Sackmann, S. A. (2011). Culture and performance. The handbook of organizational culture and climate, 2, 188-224.
Sanavi, F. S., Robati, F., & Sanavi, F. S. (2016). The Relationship between Organizational Culture and Knowledge Management Components of Lawson. TURKISH ONLINE JOURNAL OF DESIGN ART AND COMMUNICATION, 6, 2036-2042.
Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership (Vol. 2): John Wiley & Sons.
Shahzad, F., Luqman, R. A., Khan, A. R., & Shabbir, L. (2012). Impact of organizational culture on organizational performance: An overview. Interdisciplinary journal of contemporary research in business, 3(9), 975-985.
Sidanius, J., Pratto, F., Van Laar, C., & Levin, S. (2004). Social dominance theory: Its agenda and method. Political Psychology, 25(6), 845-880.
Sigler, T. H., & Pearson, C. M. (2000). Creating an empowering culture: examining the relationship between organizational culture and perceptions of empowerment. Journal of quality management, 5(1), 27-52.
Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological Empowerment in the Workplace: Dimensions, Measurement, and Validation. The Academy of Management Journal, 38(5), 1442-1465.
Terán Varela, O. E., & Lorenzo Irlanda, J. (2011). Influencia de la cultura organizacional en el desempeño laboral y la productividad de los trabajadores administrativos en instituciones de educación superior. Omnia, 17(1).
Tjosvold, D., & Sun, H. (2006). Effects of power concepts and employee performance on managers' empowering. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 27(3), 217-234.
Vărzaru, M., & Jolivet, E. (2011). Towards a Model of Designing an Organizational Structure in a Knowledge Based Society. Amfiteatru Economic Journal, 13(30), 620-631.
Venegas, M. (2019). Poder y valor del compromiso en la arquitectura de la ética organizacional, Multiciencias, 9(1), 54-61.
Weaver, K., Morales, V., Dunn, S., Godde, K., & Weaver, P. (2017). An Introduction to Statistical Analysis in Research: with Applications in the Biological and Life Sciences: John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Yin, R. (2017). Case study research and applications: Design and methods: Sage publications.
Zeitlin, M. (1974). Corporate ownership and control: The large corporation and the capitalist class. American journal of Sociology, 79(5), 1073-1119.
Zeng, K., & Luo, X. (2013). Impact of ownership type and firm size on organizational culture and on the organizational culture-effectiveness linkage. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 14(sup1), S96-S111.
Zeng, Y., Jin, M., Guo, C., & Zhang, Z. (2015). Research on evaluation of enterprise project culture based on Denison model. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, 8(3), 909-927.
Zhou, P., Bundorf, K., Le Chang, J., Huang, J. X., & Xue, D. (2011). Organizational culture and its relationship with hospital performance in public hospitals in China. Health services research, 46(6pt2), 2139-2160.
Published
2020-01-13
How to Cite
Molina, C., Heredia Rojas, B., Romaní, G., & Reynaga, R. (2020). Power Asymmetry: An Analysis of Gaps Between the Hierarchical Levels and the Organizational Culture. Journal of Business, Universidad Del Pacífico (Lima, Peru), 11(1), 49-67. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.21678/jb.2019.1245