Value Co-Creation in Ecotourism: Finding Solutions in a Digital Era

  • Laura Hernández-López
  • Salvador Del Barrio-García
Keywords: Value co–creation, ecotourism, social networking sites, virtual platforms, satisfaction, loyalty


This study aims to identify the main actors in the ecotourism online value co-creation ecosystem. With the ever-increasing demand to which the ecotourism sector has been subject in recent years, there is a need for business models featuring interactive tools that allow ecotourists to participate and co-create their own experiences. Not only will ecotourism businesses and ecotourists participate in this process, but so too will several other stakeholders, becoming key actors in the co-creation of value. Ecotourism, being of a hedonic and experiential nature, requires strategies that are geared towards enjoyment of the joint value co-creation experience. With this finality, we present some factors, such as motivation, that are necessary for the ecotourist's value co-creation, as well as various other aspects that influence their behavior. Our expectation is that value co-creation will have a positive effect on the behavior and experiences of tourists when it comes to developing ecotourism products and services. Specifically, we expect that the implementation of a co-creation strategy will lead to greater satisfaction and loyalty. Accordingly, drawing on the existing literature, we present a theoretical proposal of the antecedents and consequents that affect and enable online value co-creation by ecotourists.


Download data is not yet available.


Agrawal, A. K., & Rahman, Z. (2015). Roles and Resource Contributions of Customers in Value Co–creation. International Strategic Management Review, 3(1–2), 144–160.
Agrawal, A. K., & Rahman, Z. (2017). CCV Scale: Development and Validation of Customer Co–Created Value Scale in E–Services. Current Psychology, 1–17.
Amaral, F., Tiago, T., & Tiago, F. (2014). User–generated content: tourists’ profiles on Tripadvisor. International Journal of Strategic Innovative Marketing, 1, 137–147.
Awuor, F. O., Hayombe, P. O., Ayieko, M. A., & Agong, S. G. (2015). Experiential value co– creation: what ’s the significance of the co–created value to providers ? International Journal of Business and Social Research, 5(10), 1–9.
Bharwani, S., & Jauhari, V. (2013). An exploratory study of competencies required to co–create memorable customer experiences in the hospitality industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 25(6), 823–843.
Binkhorst, E. (2008). Turismo de co–creación, valor añadido en escenarios turísticos. Journal of Tourism Research/Revista de Investigacion En Turismo, 1(1), 40–51.
Cabiddu, F., Lui, T. W., & Piccoli, G. (2013). Managing Value Co–Creation In The Tourism Industry. Annals of Tourism Research, 42, 86–107.
Ceballos–Lascurain, H. (1987). The future of ecotourism. Mexico Journal.
Cheung, M. F. Y., & To, W. M. (2016). Service co–creation in social media: An extension of the theory of planned behavior. Computers in Human Behavior, 65, 260–266.
Chuang, H. M., Lin, C. K., Chen, D. R., & Chen, Y. S. (2013). Evolving MCDM applications using hybrid expert–based ISM and DEMATEL models: An example of sustainable ecotourism. The Scientific World Journal, 2013.
Constantinides, E., Brünink, L. A., & Romero, C. L. (2015). Customer motives and benefits for participating in online co–creation activities. International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising, 9(1), 21.
Cossío–Silva, F. J., Vega–Vázquez, M., & Revilla–Camacho, M. Á. (2016). La percepción del cliente sobre la co–creación de valor. Adecuación de la escala de Yi y Gong al contexto español. Esic Market Economics and Business Journal, 47(1), 25–40.
Cova, B., & Salle, R. (2008). Marketing solutions in accordance with the S–D logic: Co–creating value with customer network actors. Industrial Marketing Management, 37(3), 270–277.
Frias Jamilena, D. M., Polo Pena, A. I., & Rodriguez Molina, M. A. (2016). The Effect of Value–Creation on Consumer–Based Destination Brand Equity. Journal of Travel Research.
Füller, J. (2010). Refining Virtual Co–Creation from a Consumer Perspective. California Management Review, 52(2), 98–122.
Füller, J., Mühlbacher, H., Matzler, K., & Jawecki, G. (2010). Consumer empowerment through internet–based co–creation. Journal of Management Information Systems, 26(3), 71–102.
Gebauer, J., Füller, J., & Pezzei, R. (2013). The dark and the bright side of co–creation: Triggers of member behavior in online innovation communities. Journal of Business Research, 66(9), 1516–1527.
Grissemann, U. S., & Stokburger–Sauer, N. E. (2012). Customer co–creation of travel services: The role of company support and customer satisfaction with the co–creation performance. Tourism Management, 33(6), 1483–1492.
Gronroos, C. (2000). Creating a Relationship Dialogue: Communication, Interaction and Value. Marketing Review, 1(1), 5.
Grönroos, C. (2008). Service logic revisited: who creates value? And who co‐creates? European Business Review, 20(4), 298–314.
Gummesson, E., & Mele, C. (2010). Marketing as Value Co–creation Through Network Interaction and Resource Integration. Journal of Business Market Management, 1–18.
Hoyer, W. D., Chandy, R., Dorotic, M., Krafft, M., & Singh, S. S. (2010). Consumer
Cocreation in New Product Development. Journal of Service Research, 13(3), 283–296.
Ind, N., & Coates, N. (2013). The meanings of co‐creation. European Business Review, 25(1), 86–95.
Jeong, E., & Jang, S. S. (2011). Restaurant experiences triggering positive electronic word–of–mouth (eWOM) motivations. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(2), 356–366.
Lu, W., & Stepchenkova, S. (2012). Ecotourism experiences reported online: Classification of satisfaction attributes. Tourism Management, 33(3), 702–712.
Luo, N., Zhang, M., & Liu, W. (2015). The effects of value co–creation practices on building harmonious brand community and achieving brand loyalty on social media in China. Computers in Human Behavior, 48, 492–499.
Lusch, R., & Vargo, S. (2006). Service–dominant logic as a foundation for a general theory. The Service–Dominant Logic of Marketing: Dialog, Debate, and Directions.
Mack, C. (2011). Ecotourism, Ethical & Sustainable Why Are There So Many Terms? Retrieved November 15, 2017, from–tourism/travel–
McColl–Kennedy, J. R., Vargo, S. L., Dagger, T. S., Sweeney, J. C., & Kasteren, Y. v. (2012). Health Care Customer Value Cocreation Practice Styles. Journal of Service Research, 15(4), 370–389.
Neuhofer, B., Buhalis, D., & Ladkin, A. (2014). A Typology of Technology–Enhanced Tourism Experiences. Tourism, 113(2014), 16(4), 340–350.
Ng, I. C. L., Nudurupati, S. S., & Tasker, P. (2010). Value Co–Creation in the Delivery of Outcome–Based Contracts for Business–To–Business Services. Business, 1–48.
Nusair, K. K., Bilgihan, A., & Okumus, F. (2013). The role of online social network travel websites in creating social interaction for gen y travelers. International Journal of Tourism Research, 15(5), 458–472.
O’Connor, P. (2008). User–Generated Content and Travel: A Case Study on Tripadvisor.Com. In Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2008 (Vol. 33, pp. 47–58). Vienna: Springer Vienna.
Oliveira, E., & Panyik, E. (2014). Content, context and co–creation: Digital challenges in destination branding with references to Portugal as a tourist destination. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 21(1), 53–74.
OMT. (2002). Turismo: Panorama 2020 Volumen 7: Previsiones mundiales y perfiles de los segmentos de mercado. Madrid: Organización Mundial del Turismo. Retrieved from https://www.e–
Orcik, A., Tekic, Z., Borocki, J., & Anisic, Z. (2014). Unused Potential of Co–Creation in South–East Europe: Is it about the Culture? International Conference for Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Regional Development ICEIRD 2014, 13–21.
Piller, F. T., & Gülpen, C. (2016). Beyond the Offer: Co–creation in Tourism: When Your Guest Becomes Your Partner, Value Emerges, 171–187.
Plé, L., & Cáceres, R. C. (2010). Not always co–creation: introducing interactional co–destruction of value in service–dominant logic. Journal of Services Marketing, 24(6), 430–437.
Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2000). Co–Opting Customer Competence. Harvard Business Review, 78(1), 79–90.
Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2004a). Co–creating unique value with customers. Strategy and Leadership, 32(3), 4–9.
Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2004b). Co–creation experiences: The next practice in value creation. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18(3), 5–14.
Prebensen, N. K., & Foss, L. (2011). Coping and co–creating in tourist experiences. International Journal of Tourism Research, 13(1), 54–67.
Prebensen, N. K., Woo, E., & Uysal, M. S. (2013). Experience value: antecedents and consequences. Current Issues in Tourism, (February 2015), 1–19.
Ramaswamy, V. (2008). Co–creating value through customers’ experiences: the Nike case. Strategy and Leadership, 36(5), 9–14.
Ramaswamy, V. (2009). Co–creation of value — towards an expanded paradigm of value creation. Marketing Review St. Gallen, 26(6), 11–17.
Randall, W., Gravier, M., & Prybutok, V. (2011). Connection, trust, and commitment: dimensions of co–creation? Journal of Strategic Marketing, 19(1), 3–24.
Ranjan, K. R., & Read, S. (2016). Value co–creation: concept and measurement. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 44(3), 290–315.
Revilla Hernández, M., Santana Talavera, A., & Parra López, E. (2016). Effects of co–creation in a tourism destination brand image through twitter. Economic Policy, (2116).
Rihova, I, Buhalis, D, Moital, M, and Gouthro, M.–B. (2015). Conceptualising Customer–to–customer Value Co–creation in Tourism. Tourism.
Rodríguez, N. G., Álvarez, B. Á., & Vijande, M. L. S. (2011). Aplicación de la Lógica Dominante del servicio (LDS) en el sector tur??stico: El marketing interno como antecedente de la cultura de co–creaci??n de innovaciones con clientes y empleados. Cuadernos de Gestion, 11(2), 53–75.
Sarkar, S. K., Au, N., & Law, R. (2015). A study on online actions of ecotourists visiting nature based atractions in Kuala Lumpur. Revista Turismo: estudos e práticas, 4.
Sarkar, S. K., Au, N., & Law, R. (2013). Analysing Ecotourists’ Satisfaction in Socialisation and Knowledge Sharing Intentions via Social Media. In Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2014 (pp. 313–326). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
Sigala, M. (2015). Collaborative commerce in tourism: implications for research and industry. Current Issues in Tourism, 3500(January), 1–10.
Tussyadiah, I., & Zach, F. (2013). (2013). Social media strategy and capacity for consumer co–creation among destination marketing organizations. Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism, 24–35.
Von Solms, W., & Von Solms, R. (2016). Co–creation : Tourism , Technology and Wellness, 1–8.
Weaver, D. B., & Lawton, L. J. (2002). Overnight Ecotourist Market Segmentation in the Gold Coast Hinterland of Australia. Journal of Travel Research, 40(3), 270–280.
Yadav, M., Kamboj, S., & Rahman, Z. (2016). (2016). Customer co–creation through social media: The case of “Crash the Pepsi IPL 2015.” Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice, 17(4), 258–258.
Yang, Chiang, Cheng, H. (2014). Customer Value and Customer Roles on Social Media : A Travel Agency Case Study. International Journal of Business and Information, 9(4), 411–432.
Yi, Y., & Gong, T. (2013). Customer value co–creation behavior: Scale development and validation. Journal of Business Research, 66(9), 1279–1284.
Yoo, K.–H., Sigala, M., & Gretzel, U. (2016). Exploring TripAdvisor. In R. Egger, I. Gula, & D. Walcher (Eds.) (pp. 239–255). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Zwass, V. (2010). Co–Creation: Toward a Taxonomy and an Integrated Research Perspective. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 15(1), 11–48.
How to Cite
Hernández-López, L., & Del Barrio-García, S. (2018). Value Co-Creation in Ecotourism: Finding Solutions in a Digital Era. Journal of Business, Universidad Del Pacífico (Lima, Peru), 10(1), 38-51.