Journal of Business, Universidad del Pacífico (Lima, Peru) <p>Journal of Business of the Universidad del Pacífico (Lima, Peru) is a biannual academic journal published by Universidad del Pacífico Business School. Our main goal is to disseminate theoretical and applied research supported with a solid theoretical framework. The journal is oriented to a sustainable development through an outstanding effort of disseminating scientific knowledge with high quality and impact. Journal of Business publish Peer-reviewed articles. Among its main lines of publication are the following:Management, Leadership, Entrepreneurship, Innovation, Social Responsibility and Business Ethics.</p> en-US (Luis Camilo Ortigueira Sánchez) (Larry Roybar Linares Canales) Thu, 31 May 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Editorial <p>Editorial</p> Luis Camilo Ortigueira-Sánchez ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 31 May 2018 21:55:06 +0000 Worker Cooperatives and their Entrepreneurial Process. Theoretical Foundations and Empirical Evidence from the Worker Cooperatives Established in the Valencian Community, 2008-2014 <p>The context of worker cooperatives is significantly different from that of traditional firms, and so the study of entrepreneurship also differs considerably. The analysis of the creation of worker cooperatives requires differentiated approaches, as the more conventional models of entrepreneurship do not prove adequate to this end. We analyze certain determinants of the entrepreneurial process from a sociocultural perspective, which is applicable specifically to this type of firm.</p> <p>Based on the most important proposals of the network, business incubation, role, and marginalization theories from the sociocultural and institutional standpoints, we establish causal links between the determinants of the start-up process and the outcomes expected by cooperative entrepreneurs, in terms of both the performance of the firm itself and the personal outcomes anticipated by these entrepreneurs.</p> <p>From a sample of 103 firms out of a total of 633 cooperatives set up in the Valencian Community (Spain) over the period 2008-2014, and by way of a quantitative methodology drawing on structural equations – and specifically, SmartPLS – we analyze the influence of the determinants on the outcomes of entrepreneurship; in so doing, we aim to establish both the influence or the direct effects on these outcomes and the indirect or mediation effects of the respective outcome variables, as well the possible moderation effects that may be exercised between the independent factors.</p> Manuel Monreal Garrido ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 30 May 2018 21:01:55 +0000 Competitive Advantages as a Complete Mediator Variable in Strategic Resources, Dynamic Capabilities and Performance Relations in the Car Sales Sector <p>Taking the resource-based view –RBV- and the dynamic capability view –DCV- as an orientation, the main aim of this study is to develop the mediator role that competitive advantages play in the relations between strategic resources, dynamic capabilities and performance. The study takes place in a dynamic and changing sector: the sale of new cars in Portugal. The results show that (a) achieving competitive advantages, which are decisive for business results, depends on the available strategic resources and the generating of dynamic capabilities, (b) in dynamic and changing sectors strategic resources are essential to generate dynamic capabilities, (c) firms must center their attention on, more than results, the generating of sustainable competitive advantages as these act as a mediator variable of the effect of strategic resources and dynamic capabilities on performance. The data scrutiny uses structural equation modeling (SEM) through PLS as the statistical instrument. The sample comprises 89 firms which sell new cars in Portugal.</p> Antonio Navarro-García, Manuel Rey-Moreno, Pedro d’Alte Bártolo Pires de Lima ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 30 May 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Value Co-Creation in Ecotourism: Finding Solutions in a Digital Era <p>This study aims to identify the main actors in the ecotourism online value co-creation ecosystem. With the ever-increasing demand to which the ecotourism sector has been subject in recent years, there is a need for business models featuring interactive tools that allow ecotourists to participate and co-create their own experiences. Not only will ecotourism businesses and ecotourists participate in this process, but so too will several other stakeholders, becoming key actors in the co-creation of value.</p> <p>Ecotourism, being of a hedonic and experiential nature, requires strategies that are geared towards enjoyment of the joint value co-creation experience. With this finality, we present some factors, such as motivation, that are necessary for the ecotourist's value co-creation, as well as various other aspects that influence their behavior.</p> <p>Our expectation is that value co-creation will have a positive effect on the behavior and experiences of tourists when it comes to developing ecotourism products and services. Specifically, we expect that the implementation of a co-creation strategy will lead to greater satisfaction and loyalty. Accordingly, drawing on the existing literature, we present a theoretical proposal of the antecedents and consequents that affect and enable online value co-creation by ecotourists.</p> Laura Hernández-López, Salvador Del Barrio-García ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 25 May 2018 00:00:00 +0000 How does Cultural Norms Influence Entrepreneurial Intention? A Cross Cultural Study <p>Entrepreneurial Intention is commonly attributed to the interaction of cultural values and attitude; however, cultural values vary according to the context in which they are developed. The following study intends to show how Subjective Norms affect intentions of self-employment, as both, a direct factor and mediated through attitudinal values: Perceived Behavioral Control and Desirability, within a cross-cultural framework. A sample of 736 students from four different countries: Spain, Portugal, Mexico and India were used. Results yielded a direct relationship between Subjective Norm and Intention in all countries, except India. When mediated through attitude, the relation becomes stronger, even more when it’s through Desirability, except in Portugal, which the relationship is stronger directly through Social Norms. India does not show a relationship between Perceived Behavioral Control and Intention. Conclusions show that the influence of culture on intention, effectively, varies by context.</p> José Carlos Sánchez-García, Alexander Ward Mayens, Gioconda Vargas Morúa, Jenny Linette Flórez Daza, Brizeida Hernández Sánchez ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 30 May 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Pursuit of External Knowledge in Eco-Innovation. Analysis of the Agri-Food Sector in Spain <p>The research about the search for opportunities through open cooperation strategies points to an exchange of knowledge among a certain number of sources, aimed at sustaining competitive advantage. From this new vision emerges the paradigm of open innovation, which has prompted a change in the organization of resources, information filtering, and rapid absorptive capacity. Awareness of climate problems and external societal pressures can motivate companies to create new technologies and new forms of cooperation to avoid environmental problems. Based on a survey of Spanish agri-food firms, we find that the depth of external sources of innovation increases environmental improvement in a U-shaped relationship.</p> Laura M. Avellaneda-Rivera, Ángela González-Moreno, Francisco J. Sáez-Martínez ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 31 May 2018 00:00:00 +0000