Sufrimiento en marcha: estrategias de movilidad de mexicanos deportados de los Estados Unidos

  • Agnieszka Radziwinowiczówna Universidad de Wolverhampton, Reino Unido - Centro de Investigación sobre Migración, Universidad de Varsovia, Polonia
Palabras clave: agencia, ausencia, deportación, inmovilidad, sufrimiento, México, movilidad, resistencia

Resumen

Desde inicios de este siglo hemos presenciado la realización de estudios que analizan críticamente la deportación y la deportabilidad. Poco sabemos, sin embargo, sobre las trayectorias de los deportados postdeportación. Este fenómeno puede  entenderse mejor recurriendo a una tipología integral de estrategias de movilidad postdeportación. El presente artículo analiza el caso de mexicanos deportados de los Estados Unidos y se basa en estudios etnográficos realizados en Oaxaca entre personas que fueron deportadas. La movilidad  postdeportación presupone o se deriva de las ausencias y el sufrimiento experimentados por las personas deportadas, movilidad que a menudo constituye un ejemplo de agencia y resistencia, especialmente en el contexto de un retorno no autorizado a los Estados Unidos.

Referencias

Besserer, F., & Kearney, M. (Eds.). (2006). San Juan Mixtepec: una comunidad transnacional
ante el poder clasificador y filtrador de las fronteras. México, Riverside: Casa Juan
Pablos, Fundación Rockefeller, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Unidad
Iztapalapa, Departamento de Antropología, Universidad de California-Riverside.
Boehm, D. A. (2011). US-Mexico Mixed Migration in an Age of Deportation: An Inquiry
into the Transnational Circulation of Violence. Refugee Survey Quarterly, 30(1),
1–21. https://doi.org/10.1093/rsq/hdq042
Boehm, D. A. (2016). Returned: Going and Coming in an Age of Deportation. Oakland:
University of California Press.
Boehm, D. A., Hess, J. M., Coe, C., Rae-Espinoza, H., & Reynolds, R. R. (2011). Children,
Youth, and the Everyday Ruptures of Migration. In C. Coe, R. R. Reynolds,
D. Boehm, J. M. Hess, & H. Rae-Espinoza, Everyday Ruptures: Children, Youth, and
Migration in Global Perspective (pp. 1–22). Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.
Capps, R., Castañeda, R.M., Chaudry, A., & Santos, R. (2007). Paying the Price: The Impact
of Immigration Raids on America’s Children. Washington, DC: National Council of
La Raza, The Urban Institute.
Cohen, J. H. (2004). The Culture of Migration in Southern Mexico. Austin: University of
Texas Press.
Coutin, S. B. (2010). Exiled by Law: Deportation and the Inviability of Life. In N. De
Genova & N. Peutz (Eds.), The Deportation Regime: Sovereignty, Space, and the Freedom
of Movement (pp. 351–370). Durham, London: Duke University Press.
De Genova, N. (2010). The Deportation Regime: Sovereignty, Space, and the Freedom of
Movement. In N. De Genova & N. Peutz (Eds.), The Deportation Regime: Sovereignty,
Space, and the Freedom of Movement (pp. 33–65). Durham, London: Duke
University Press.
De León, J. (2013). The Efficacy and Impact of the Alien Transfer Exit Programme: Migrant
Perspectives from Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. International Migration, 51(2), 10–23.
https://doi.org/10.1111/imig.12062
De León, J. (2015). The Land of Open Graves: Living and Dying on the Migrant Trail. Oakland:
University of California Press.
Farmer, P. (1997). On Suffering and Structural Violence: A View from Below. In A. Kleinman,
V. Das, & M. Lock (Eds.), Social Suffering (pp. 261–283). Berkeley, Los Angeles,
London: University of California Press.
Fernández-Niño, J. A., Ramírez Valdés, C. J., Cerecero-Garcia, D., & Bojorquez-
Chapela, I. (2014). Deported Mexican migrants: health status and access to
care. Revista de Saúde Pública, 48(3), 478–485. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-
8910.2014048005150
Flick, U. (2007). Managing Quality in Qualitative Research. London: SAGE Publications.
Gibler, J. (2017). I Couldn’t Even Imagine That They Would Kill Us: An Oral History of the
Attacks Against the Students of Ayotzinapa. San Francisco: City Lights.
Gonzales, A. (2013). Reform Without Justice: Latino Migrant Politics and the Homeland
Security State. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Instituto Nacional de Migración. (2014). Infograma Repatriación. Retrieved from http://
www.inm.gob.mx/static/pdf/Infograma_REPATRIACION.pdf
Suffering in Motion: Mobility Strategies of Mexicans Deported from the United States
Isacson, A., Meyer, M., & Davis, A. (2013). Border Security and Migration: A Report from
Arizona. Washington, DC: Washington Office on Latin America. Retrieved from
http://www.wola.org/publications/border_security_and_migration
Kilpatrick, K. (October 16, 2014). Into the Arms of the Cartels: Deported Mexicans sent
to City Ruled by Fear. Al Jazeera America. Retrieved from http://america.aljazeera.
com/articles/2014/10/16/deported-mexicanimmigrantspreyforcartels.html
Kleinman, A., Das, V., & Lock, M. (1997). Introduction. In A. Kleinman, V. Das, & M.
Lock (Eds.), Social Suffering (pp. ix–xxvii). Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lecadet, C. (2013). From Migrant Destitution to Self-organization into Transitory
National Communities: The Revival of Citizenship in Post-deportation Experience
in Mali. In B. Anderson, M. J. Gibney, & E. Paoletti (Eds.), The Social, Political and
Historical Contours of Deportation (pp. 143–158). New York: Springer.
Passel, J., Cohn, D., & Gonzalez-Barrera, A. (2012). Net Migration from Mexico Falls to
Zero—and Perhaps Less. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center. Retrieved from
http://www.pewhispanic.org/2012/04/23/net-migration-from-mexico-falls-tozero-
and-perhaps-less/
Patrick, R. (2012). Recruiting & sustaining sample populations over time: Possibilities and challenges.
Timescapes methods guides series, guide no. 3. (Timescapes methods guides series
2012). Retrieved from http://www.timescapes.leeds.ac.uk/assets/files/methodsguides/
timescapes-ruth-patrick.pdf
Peutz, N. (2010). “Criminal Alien” Deportees in Somaliland: An Ethnography of Removal.
In N. De Genova & N. Peutz (Eds.), The Deportation Regime: Sovereignty, Space,
and the Freedom of Movement (pp. 371–409). Durham, London: Duke University
Press Books.
Radziwinowiczówna, A. (2014). Czy homo sacer może zostać obywatelem? Doświadczenie
migracji drogą do budowy obywatelskości w meksykańskiej społeczności transnarodowej.
Politeja, 31(1), 345–362.
Radziwinowiczówna, A. (2016). The Materiality of the State of Exception: Components
of the Experience of Deportation from the United States. Journal of Contemporary
Archaeology, 3(2), S1–S7. https://doi.org/10.1558/jca.31845
Rohal, M., & Lopez, M. H. (2014). The Rise of Federal Immigration Crimes: Unlawful
Reentry Drives Growth. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from
http://www.pewhispanic.org/files/2014/03/2014-03-18_federal-courts-immigrati
on-final.pdf
Romero Loyola, M. (2012). Deportados y reclasificados. Trabajadores de un call center de la
zona metropolitana transnacional Tijuana - San Diego (Licenciatura). Universidad
Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, México.
Saada, E. (2000). Abdelmalek Sayad and the Double Absence: Toward a Total Sociology of
Immigration. French Politics, Culture & Society, 18(1), 28–47.
Sanmiguel-Valderrama, O. (2013). Border Enforcement at Family Sites: Social Reproductive
Implications for Mexican and Central American Manual Labor in
the United States. Latin American Perspectives, 40(5), 78–92. https://doi.
org/10.1177/0094582X13492957
Sayad, A. (2004). The Suffering of the Immigrant. (D. Macey, Trans.) (1 edition). Cambridge:
Polity.
Scheper-Hughes, N. (1998). Undoing: Social Suffering and the Politics of Remorse in the
New South Africa. Social Justice, 25(4 (74)), 114–142.
Schuster, L., & Majidi, N. (2013). What happens post-deportation? The experience of
deported Afghans. Migration Studies, 1(2), 221–240. https://doi.org/10.1093/
migration/mns011
Schuster, L., & Majidi, N. (2015). Deportation Stigma and Re-migration. Journal of
Ethnic and Migration Studies, 41(4), 635–652. https://doi.org/10.1080/13691
83X.2014.957174
Shore, C. (1999). Fictions of Fieldwork: Depicting the “Self ” in Ethnographic Writing
(Italy). In C. W. Watson (Ed.), Being There: Fieldwork in Anthropology (pp. 25–48).
London: Pluto Press.
Smith, R. C. (2006). Mexican New York: Transnational Lives of New Immigrants. Berkeley:
University of California Press.
Stephen, L. (2007). Transborder Lives: Indigenous Oaxacans in Mexico, California, and Oregon.
Duke University Press.
Talavera, V., Núñez-Mchiri, G., & Heyman, J. (2010). Deportation in the U.S.-Mexico
Borderlands: Anticipation, Experience, and Memory. In The Deportation Regime:
Sovereignty, Space, and the Freedom of Movement (pp. 166–195). Durham ; London:
Duke University Press Books.
Tapias, M. (2006). Emotions and the Intergenerational Embodiment of Social Suffering
in Rural Bolivia. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 20(3), 399–415. https://doi.
org/10.1525/maq.2006.20.3.399
Turner, V. (1995). The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-structure. New York: Hawthorne.
U.S. Department of Homeland Security: Office of Inspector General. (2009). Removals
Involving Illegal Alien Parents of United States Citizen Children (OIG-09-15). Washington,
DC: U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved from https://www.
oig.dhs.gov/assets/Mgmt/OIG_09-15_Jan09.pdf
Velasco, L., & Coubés, M. L. (2013). Reporte sobre dimensión, caracterización y áreas de
atención a mexicanos deportados desde Estados Unidos. Tijuana: El Colegio de la Frontera
Norte.
Wessler, S. F. (2011). Shattered Families: The Perilous intersection of immigration enforcement and
the Child Welfare System. New York: Applied Research Center. Retrieved from http://
act.colorlines.com/acton/attachment/1069/f-0079/0/-/-/l-sf-cl-70140000000
T6DHAA0-000f/l-sf-cl-70140000000T6DHAA0-000f:fced/file.pdf
Zilberg, E. (2011). Space of Detention: The Making of a Transnational Gang Crisis between
Los Angeles and San Salvador. Durham, London: Duke University.
Publicado
2019-04-26
Cómo citar
Radziwinowiczówna, A. (2019). Sufrimiento en marcha: estrategias de movilidad de mexicanos deportados de los Estados Unidos. Apuntes. Revista De Ciencias Sociales, 46(84). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.21678/apuntes.84.1015
Sección
Artículos